The first building systems were made of materials of natural origin - wood, cops, stone. These were mostly local materials or delivered from short distances.
As people gain experience in the field of building and learn about the technical properties of materials used in construction, the rules for the correct construction of elements and building systems began to be established.
The oldest buildings testify to this, how, at different times, the builders skillfully used the technical properties of the materials; both compression elements were made of wood, and bent, while the stone, and later ceramic brick was also used for the compression elements. There were also attempts to use stone to make small span bending elements.
Na rysunku a pokazano nadproża drzwiówe wykonane w postaci belki kamiennej o stałym przekroju, and to the line. b with a variable cross-section. In ancient Egypt, and later in ancient Greece, beams in the form of stone blocks were also used to cover temples. In these cases, the spacings of the columns (column) were small - approx. (2-3)d (d - column diameter).
In these residential and farm buildings, in which the load-bearing walls were made of stone or clay brick or ceramic brick, on the covers (top, roof, ceiling) wooden beams made of round logs or partially hewn round logs were used. Flat lintels were used above door or window openings, and later vaulted (arched).
In Mycenae and Egypt, you can already find covers of royal tombs and corridors of the Egyptian pyramids in the form of vaults. In these vaults, the stone has not yet been used properly, only in Roman arches and vaults, stone and brick were arranged in this way, that they work only in compression.