## Garden stairs, part 2

At times, building individual steps may be warranted, if they are sufficiently contrasted with the color of the pavement. You can, for example. lay light concrete or stone steps on a road with a dark bituminous surface. Moreover, such grades can be accentuated with an appropriate arrangement of plants in their vicinity. It is also very important, that the individual steps in multi-stage runs are sufficiently visible. This is important both when going up stairs, as well as when descending. That is why it is advisable, that each step has an overhang called a nose on its vertical wall, creating chiaroscuro emphasizing the step line. Nawis taki, by increasing the length of the steps, it can facilitate climbing quite steep stairs. For those going down the stairs it is important to emphasize the edge of the landing, that is, the tread of the highest degree on the run. This is most easily achieved by making the landing of a material with a different color than the steps.

The steps of the stairs should be so made, so that no water can remain on their surface, which would be especially dangerous in winter. Therefore, the upper surface of the step should have a slight slope (1-2%) allowing the water to drain off. For these reasons, the material forming the step should not be too smooth.

Steps should not be made of easily abrasive materials, gdyż powoduje to ich wyokrąglenie utrudniające ruch i grożące po pewnym czasie niebezpieczeństwem. The edges of the steps made of very hard material are welcomed to be rounded with a curvature with a radius of approx 5 mm.

Relationship of landing length with the rhythm of walking up the stairs.

The length of the landings between the runs should not be accidental. It is recommended that, that the landing length measured along the stair axis is an even multiple of a move, that is, the width of the step, plus one step width, which is expressed by the formula

L = n • p + s

wherein: L - landing length, n - even number, p - move, s - step width.