Construction services

Garden walls, part 2

Garden walls can be of various sizes and made of various materials, however, it is always necessary to follow some general recommendations when building, which both facilitate the execution, as well as the maintenance of walls. Thus, walls should be built on a stabilized surface, because even slight subsidence of the ground can cause cracks, fractures or tipping over of walls. Each wall should have an appropriate depth foundation 30 – 80 cm. The shallowest foundations are made on easily permeable soils and for low walls. The deepest foundation depth is used on impermeable soils and for higher walls, with a rigid structure. The foundation depth on impermeable soils can be reduced by placing a sand bench under the foundation. Coarse sand or fine gravel should be used for this purpose. To avoid, cracks in walls of a rigid structure must be made at intervals (usually 3-5 m) expansion joints.

If a lawn is planned in front of the wall, the foundation of the wall should protrude towards it by o 15-20 cm. This is to prevent grass from settling right next to the wall elevation, because kosher in this place is possible only by hand or - if the facade of the wall is very smooth - with specially constructed mowers. The plane of the protruding foundation strip is located at the projected height of the lawn soil surface.

The thickness of the walls made of the most commonly used materials varies within limits 1/3 – 1/5 their heights. Higher walls, which are exposed to greater earth pressure, it is advisable to lean back slightly, where an inclination within the limits is applied 10 – 15% heights, and sometimes ,(e.g.. flower walls) even to 20%.

Garden walls should be protected against the destructive effects of rainwater, which may run down from. the surface of the higher ground and overflow over the surface of the low wall. Materials floated by water usually pollute the surface of the wall, moreover, water can seep into the ground behind the wall, seep through the cracks in the wall to the outside and cause similar contamination of the wall. Such water may also cause the grant to soften and wash out even in the lower part, which is particularly dangerous for the stability of shallow-foundation walls.. Overflow of water from behind the wall is usually prevented by placing its upper surface higher than the surface of the ground behind it.. You should only allow the drainage of water in a direction parallel to the wall and drain it properly.

If the expected amount of water runoff is large, there is a risk of soil leaching towards the existing slope. In order to strengthen the ground surface, it is then necessary to build slope gutters.

In order to protect the wall against damage or destruction caused by seepage water, Regardless of the construction of the slope gutters, it is necessary to create a drainage layer behind the wall and allow the water to drain away. The water is usually drained out using built-in ceramic or other filters. The drainage layer is usually made of coarse sand or gravel