The shape of a building's geometric body and the choice of a structural system depend on many factors: location (area, in which it is to be erected), destination, heights, the type of material used for the structure and casing (exterior walls), methods of execution, cost, etc..
Depending on the planned period of use, buildings can be temporary or permanent. Temporary buildings include buildings used for 20 years, while used above 20 years are counted as constant. Permanent buildings can be divided into the following classes of longevity: 20-50 years, 50-100 years and above 100 years.
Technical and operational requirements for buildings also depend on their height. The division of buildings into height groups is as follows:
1) low (N) — do 12 m above ground level inclusive or residential up to 4 above-ground storeys, inclusive,
2) medium high (SN) - over 12 m do 25 m inclusive above p.t.. or residential with a height of more than 4 do 9 above-ground storeys, inclusive,
3) high (W) - over 25 m do 55 m inclusive above p.t.. or residential with a height of more than 9 do 18 above-ground storeys, inclusive,
4) altitude (WW)- above 55 m above ground level.
A building constructed with related construction equipment should be designed and built in a manner specified in the regulations, including technical and construction, and in accordance with the principles of technical knowledge.
Buildings should meet the basic requirements for:
1) structural safety - spatial stiffness of the building, its stability and resistance to external forces (wind, snow, ground movements, etc.) and the forces caused by use (human burdens, machines, devices, materials etc.), as well as the durability of the building in the planned period of use,
2) fire safety - load capacity of the structure for the assumed time, the possibility of evacuating people, conducting a rescue operation and limiting the spread of fire in the facility and to neighboring facilities,
3) safety of use - protection against the risk of accidents during use (the location of the door, windows, the height of the handrail at the stairs, exit from the staircase to the roof, use of anti-slip and anti-electrostatic floors),
4) appropriate hygienic and health conditions and environmental protection - construction of buildings from materials harmless to human health or livestock (non-toxic gases, dangerous radiation), to protect against weather conditions (temperature, rainfall, insolation, uncontrolled infiltration of outside air) and factors coming from outside or inside the building – (short, pollution, moisture in building components) and proper smoke and exhaust removal, impurities and waste,
5) protection against noise and vibrations - horizontal and vertical building partitions should have sufficient acoustic insulation, that the noise level does not endanger human health, and also enabled them to work, rest and sleep in satisfactory conditions,
6) energy savings and adequate thermal insulation of partitions - the requirement for a reasonably low level of thermal energy consumption needed to use the building in accordance with its intended use.