Requirements of a reasonably low level of thermal energy needed to use the building and its heating installations, ventilation and climate, are determined by the E index of the seasonal heat demand in the standard heating season for the volume of the heated part of the building.
Requirements are met, when the E index is less than the limit E0. The E0 limit values for residential buildings and collective housing, depending on the building's shape ratio A / V, are:
– E0 = 29 kW · h /(m³ · year) at A / V ≤ 0,20 ,
– E0 = 26,6 +12 AA/ kW·h/(m³ · year) at 0,20 < A/V < 0,90
– E0 = 37,4 kW · h /(m³ · year) at A / V ≥ 0,90 where:
A - is the sum of the areas of all external walls, roofs and flat roofs, floors on the ground or ceilings above a non-heated basement, ceilings over crossings, separating the heated part of the building from the outside air, the ground and adjacent unheated spaces calculated along the external contour,
V - is the net volume of the heated part of the building.
The seasonal heat demand indicator for heating a residential building and collective residence E is calculated according to PN-B-02025.
For a single-family residential building, the requirements are met if:
— wartość wskaźnika E < E0 or,
— przegrody zewnętrzne odpowiadają wymaganiom izolacyjności cieplnej wg tablicy poniżej.
A single-family residential building.
The values of the heat transfer coefficient for windows and doors should not exceed Uk max specified in the Ordinance of the Ministry of Infrastructure of 12 April 2002 r.
The surface area of windows and glass and transparent partitions cannot be greater than:
Amax = 0,15 The + 0,03 Aw
Az — jest sumą pól powierzchni rzutu poziomego wszystkich kondygnacji nadziemnych (in the outer contour of the building) waist width 5 m along the outer walls,
Aw — jest sumą pól powierzchni pozostałej części rzutu poziomego wszystkich kondygnacji po odjęciu A .
The temperature of the inner surface of opaque partitions should be at least 1 ° C higher than the dew point of the air in the room, at the calculated values of the air temperature.
Opaque external partitions, joints between partitions and part of partitions as well as joints between windows and frames should be completely airtight.
The U heat transfer coefficient compliant with the requirements for external partitions is obtained by using homogeneous partitions of appropriate thickness made of materials with a low coefficient of thermal conductivity - X or multi-layer partitions constructed of a load-bearing layer and heat-insulating material..
Low thermal insulation of external partitions causes significant heat losses and their freezing, there is moisture in the rooms, health conditions of the stay deteriorate, and the process of destroying buildings is accelerated.