Arrangement of piles under walls and pillars
Footings or footings are made on the pile heads, which is subject to the load from the building structure. The piles should be positioned under the bench or foot, that there is no undesirable eccentric force effect.
Under every pole (with a foundation foot) is usually taken 3 pale, however, sometimes it can only be entered 2 pale, and even one, if it has a large diameter. When making piles, dimensional deviations may occur within the limits 5-10 cm.
With three piles under the base of the column made with a deviation from the designated position, uneven pressure on the piles can arise, but there will be no undesirable eccentricity in the action of forces. If the poles are not far away, they can be connected with benches, and make two piles under the pillars. In such a solution, the inaccuracy in the construction of the piles may cause slight changes in relation to the design load and will not cause adverse effects.. This is how the construction of benches and feet should be done, that the load is evenly distributed among the individual piles. This is achieved by using foundations of adequate stiffness. The pile layouts under the footings and footings are shown in the figure.
One row of piles can be placed under the benches then, when the longitudinal benches are connected with the transverse footings and the ceiling slab above the basement. However, when the walls are spaced at a greater distance, and the wall is not stiffened with ceilings, e.g.. factory halls, then two rows of piles are given.
Under the feet of individual poles, as a rule, at least is used 3 pale, more often 4 and more, depending on the magnitude of the forces transmitted by the column and the lifting capacity of the designed piles. Such piles are usually placed symmetrically around the column, a strictly around the foundation base load axis.