Depending on the use in construction, building materials can be broadly classified into:
Both individual groups of materials, and the materials in individual groups differ in their technical properties. Technical characteristics include features: physical, mechanical and chemical. Physical characteristics include: density, tightness, porosity, water absorption, combustibility, heat resistance, heat capacity, thermal expansion, etc.. Mechanical features include: compressive and tensile strength, fragility, hardness, elasticity, plasticity, ductility, crawl, abrasion and impact resistance. The group of the main chemical characteristics includes: oxide and mineral composition, corrosion resistance.
The materials intended for the construction are required, that they have high compressive and tensile strength, appropriate hardness and elasticity, frost resistance and corrosion resistance.
The materials used for thermal insulation should have low thermal conductivity, low density, and high porosity, etc..