Timber frame walls part 3

The drawings show the structural system of the building, which is widely used in Canada. The structure is made of wooden logs and it is partially modernized with the system.

The cross-section of the columns of the wall frame and their spacing depends on the acting load and the type of wall finishing. Usually columns with a cross-section are assumed 5 x 10 cm spaced apart 30-60 cm. In non-load-bearing walls (divisions) the cross-section of the columns may be taken 5 x 7,5 cm in spacing 40-60 cm.

tmp7f38-1tmpe781-1Structural elements of the Canadian building: a) wall structure, b) vertical section, c), d) details of the support of the walls and floor on the foundation; 1 - foundation, 2, 5 - cap, 3, 4 - external and internal poles, 6 - Floor plate, 7, 8 - maybe, 9 — krokiew, 10 - kotew, 11 - external formwork, 12 - bottom purlin, 13 - plate (plywood) or dry plaster, 14 - roof plate (plywood or boards).

Corner posts are made of at least three logs with a cross-section of 5×10 cm. The columns are placed on a foundation made of one or two logs with a cross-section 5 x 10 cm. In figure c, d shows two ways to solve the foundation. In the first case (Lynx. e) the columns transfer the forces to the foundation through the beams and the fascia, in the second (Lynx. d) directly on the foundation.
In both solutions, the floor beams rest on the foundations. The cross-section of the floor beams depends on their length and spacing in the floor as well as the size of the loads acting on the floor.. Most often, cross-sections of beams with dimensions of 5 are used×15 cm, 5 x 22,5 cm, 5 x 25 cm i 5 x 30 cm.
There is a cap made of two logs with a cross-section on the posts 5 x 10 cm, on which the floor beams or roof trusses rest. In figure b, the roof rafters rest on the lower purlin placed on the beams.

The framework can be stiffened by boards nailed to the posts parallel to the foundation or inclined at an angle of 45 °.

tmpa43f-1Outer wall: a) boarding, b) upholstery with boards; 1 - horizontal formwork, 2 – formwork at an angle of 45 °, 3 - foundation, 4 — slup, 5 - board contact, 6 - window bolt, 7 - plate placed vertically, 8 - plate contact, 9 - the plate is positioned horizontally.