Division of walls

Walls can be divided into: depending on their purpose as well as constructional and material solutions: load bearing, self-supporting, cover and partition. Load-bearing walls carry their own weight, wind loads and loads from other structural members, like ceilings, substrings, roof etc.. Self-supporting walls carry their own weight and absorb wind loads, which transfer to other elements of the load-bearing structure, e.g.. on the ceilings, load-bearing walls, or superstructure skeleton. Curtain and filling walls bear the wind load, except for the interior walls, which, together with their own weight, transfer to the elements of the load-bearing structure. Partition walls delimit individual utility rooms, and their weight is transferred to other load-bearing elements: ceiling, beam or frame transom. They also transfer small horizontal forces caused by the support of utility items, people etc.. The arrangement of the load-bearing walls in the building can be transverse, longitudinal, cross or mixed. The layouts of the walls in the building and diagrams of their work are shown in the figure.

Arrangement of load-bearing walls: a) transverse, b) longitudinal, c) a diagram of the work of walls in a transverse arrangement, d) a diagram of the work of the wall in a longitudinal arrangement; 1 - beam, 2 - wall.

Depending on the purpose of the building and the type of walls (load bearing, self-supporting etc.) there are requirements for the construction of the walls, their thermal and acoustic insulation and fire safety, e.g.. is required from the external load-bearing wall, that it meets the load-bearing capacity, thermal and acoustic insulation and constituted a fire barrier, while from the load-bearing wall to the internal load-bearing and fire conditions, or load-bearing capacity and sound insulation.

Building view; 1 - plinth, 2 - inter-story cornice, 3 - pillar between windows, 4 - flat lintel, 5 - crowning cornice, 6 - vaulted lintel (arched), 7 - top, roof.

Window and door openings are made in the external and internal walls, which is covered with lintels; above the window occurs 1 window lintel, and a door lintel above the door. There are vaulted lintels (arched and flat). A narrow vertical strip of masonry between the windows (the door) is a pillar.