Coverings in engineering wooden structures

The span of covers in engineering wooden structures is several dozen meters. They are characterized by lightness, savings in wood consumption and a variety of design solutions.

tmp9fdb-1tmpfdc4-1Engineering structures: a) double-span lattice frame, b) three-hinged frames made of glued wood, c) Laminated timber lattice girders.

In the carpentry construction, mostly single buildings were made- or two-story (buildings not intended for housing may have different heights).

For a long time, the walls of wooden buildings were made as log walls or mullion-transom walls (skeletal). For several decades, walls have been made of prefabricated elements made of wood and wood-based materials. Such building components, like walls, ceilings and roof are made in factories outside the construction site.

In the carpentry solutions, steep roofs were usually used, and this is mainly due to the type of covering used - shingles, tile - as well as the need to use the attic space for living or utility rooms. The most common types of roofs are shown in the figure.

tmpc187-1Roof shapes: a) single-plane, b) two-faced, c) four-plane, d) with a lower half-peak, e) with upper half-peak, f) tented, g) mansard, h) tower, i) copulasty, j) pilasty.

Engineering wooden structures are mainly used in single-storey hall-type buildings with large spacing of walls or columns, This type of building is found in industrial construction (as production and warehouse halls), sports and other. These structures can be load-bearing structures of buildings, or just their covers. Roof shapes are flat, steep arches, etc..

Wooden buildings and structures are mostly made of softwood: pine, fir and spruce. Oak as a building material is used for foundation piles, foundations, thresholds, poles and load-bearing elements in frame structures (of transom and mullions). Other types of wood, how: ash, buk, grab, larch are currently used for interior finishing works.

Wood is pre-treated before being installed, to which it belongs: cross cut to the desired length, chipping, splitting or sawing lengthways, making cuts and connections.

Wood obtained by sawing wooden trunks longitudinally, the so-called. friction, it is commonly used both in carpentry construction, as well as in engineering structures. According to PN-75 / D-010001 lumber is divided into: boards up to 13 mm, boards, bale, slats, patches, square timber and beams.