Frames in a carpentry solution: a) single-nave with vertical external walls, b) dwunawowe, c) single-nave, strut-strut; 1 - hall longitudinal braces, 2 -purlin, 3 - pole, 4 — krokiew, 5 - struts (inclined poles), 6 - contradictions, 7 - ticks, 8 - swords, 9 - foundation, 10 - anchors.
The figure shows the structural systems, which are used - in single-storey hall-type buildings intended for warehouses, production halls, barns, shelters etc..
The truss structure connected with the columns creates a frame structure, which takes vertical and horizontal loads and transfers them through the foundation to the ground. Depending on the method of shaping the spatial rigidity of the building structure, the poles can be placed vertically or deviating from the vertical. For double poles and additionally inclined from the vertical (rys.a, b, c) the structure is more rigid in its plane than with vertical columns. The span of the carpentry frames is 8,0-15,0 m.
In the longitudinal direction of the building, the frames are positioned at intervals 3,0-5,0 m. Purlins are placed over the columns, which with swords connect to the pillars or braces and thus stiffen the frames and their surfaces, i.e.. in the longitudinal direction. The stiffness of the structure in the longitudinal direction of the building is ensured by vertical bracing (struts), which are placed in the outermost spaces between the poles; if the building is long, it is also in the intermediate fields.
The frames are usually made of square timber, half and round logs can also be used. The figure shows the construction details of the span frame 12,0 m shown in fig. c.
Construction details of the span lattice frame 12,0 m: a) view, b), c), d) details; 1 - rafters, 2 - purlins, 3 - blocks, 4 - fishing, 5 - sword, 6 - lacing.
The outer walls of buildings can be made as mullion-transom walls filled with brick (half-timbered wall) or from boards and thermal insulation.