The carpentry joints used in wooden structures require high precision and are labor-intensive. It is much easier to make connections with nails or other fasteners. It forms the frontal rebate, spigot and sockets and pin.
Nail joints of rafters with beams: a) rebate and overlay connection, b) connection with overlay and overlays.
The nail connection can be made in two ways: with a front rebate without a pin and a side cap nailed to the beam and rafters: (Lynx. a), or with a front liner acting as a rebate and side covers (Lynx. b).
The connection of the rafters in the ridge and the collar with the rafter by means of side overlays is shown in the drawing.
Nail joints: a), b) rafter collar, c) rafters in the ridge, d) maybe, e),f) purlins.
Two solutions can be used to prevent the collar from sliding downwards: frontal rebate (rys.a, b) or a kickstand, the so-called. saddle. The ways of joining beams and purlins are shown in. Lynx. d, e, f.
Steel caps with spikes are used instead of nails nailed, the so-called. toothed plates. The figure shows a lattice roof truss made of logs connected in knots with the Gang Nail type toothed plates.
Log girders connected with toothed plates: a) spar view, b) Gang Nail type plate.
This type of roof truss is widely used both for covering wooden buildings, and brick ones. The span of the lattice trusses is 4,0-8,5 m. Logs with a cross-section from 5 x 10 cm do 5 x 15 cm.
In buildings with brick walls and concrete ceilings, rafters: The wooden roofs rest on the external walls through the walls.
Basing a wall-plan on a wall: a) building without a knee wall, b) building with a knee wall; 1 — krokiew, 2 - brick wall, 3 - ceiling wreath, 4 - anchor rod (screw), 5 - upper wreath under the wall plate, 6 - insulating tar paper.
If there are no knee walls, the murate is placed on the rim of the attic ceiling (rys.a). To prevent the wall lath from being displaced horizontally, it should be bolted to the rim. Murlata is placed on a layer of insulation felt.
In the case of using knee-shaped walls - in buildings with residential attics - the wall-board is placed on the top panel of the knee-shaped wall, and then anchors it with rods reaching to the beam of the lower ceiling (rys.b). The anchor rod prevents the knee wall from tipping over, caused by a horizontal reaction from rafters and wind.