Carpentry joints

Carpentry joints are labor-intensive and require careful work, and the decisive factor for the quality of the joint was a suitably selected miter adapted to the direction of force and the wood profile. The following types of carpentry joints are distinguished:
a) longitudinal horizontal used in foundations, caps, bindings and legates,
b) longitudinal vertical used when extending poles, piles and racks,
c) transverse in connection of two elements placed perpendicularly or obliquely to each other, occurring in the roof truss, in stud walls etc.,
d) corner walls of the log walls, foundations, caps, purlins etc.,
e) on the front notch in roof trusses.

The development of shaping wooden structures was influenced by many factors, and in particular the type and availability of materials and tools, the purpose of the building, construction demand, etc.. As the structural solutions were improved, the span of buildings' roofs increased, supports - walls, poles - were placed further and further, and the building became lighter.

tmp11e2-1Carpentry constructions: a) the top of the Podhale cottage, b) gable roof, c) two-hang roof truss.

The figure shows the roof carpentry structures in relation to the span of the covers.

At the end of the 19th century. there is progress in shaping wooden structures related to the use of wooden elements other than carpentry, for which steel fasteners were used: nails, pins, screws, screws and rings. In addition to beams with a full rectangular or I-section, savings beams in the form of trusses began to be used. Truss trusses were used instead of typical carpentry trusses, arched, framework, mesh vaults etc.. Square timber is used to make these structures, logs and boards of various width and thickness.

Due to the limited resources of wood and the lack of wood with large cross-sections, glued wooden structures and structures made of wood-based materials were introduced into the construction industry..