Non-rocky mineral soils.
Non-rocky mineral soils provide a good foundation for foundations, their load capacity depends on the degree of consolidation, and for cohesive soils - values of the degree of plasticity.
Glacial clay and clay sands (order) and sands are a very durable and good foundation for even heavy structures. Consolidated layered clays are also a good substrate. These clays, however, should they be exposed, if they become saturated with water, they change their consistency and swell.
Postglacial dust and clay are quite compressible and have a lower bearing capacity than the previously mentioned soils. The bearing capacity of silty soils depends on the location of the groundwater level; dusts located above the water table have a fairly high load-bearing capacity due to the compressive effect of capillary water, after the water table is raised, the capillary pressure disappears and the load-bearing capacity decreases as a result of the deformation of the dust.
Coarse and medium sands are considered a good substrate, regardless of their degree of compaction and humidity. Fine and dusty sands are also a good substrate provided, that they are above groundwater. In the case of saturation with water, these soils should only be subjected to static loads without dynamic loads.
Organic non-rocky soil.
Land containing more than 2% humus and plant parts are classified as non-rocky organic soils. They are characterized by high compressibility and low shear strength.
As a rule, organic non-rocky soils are very poor, and their carrying capacity depends on the content of humus and plant parts; if the content is greater, load capacity is decreasing. Detailed tests should be carried out on the foundation of the structure. If it turns out, that the ground is weak, and the structure cannot be moved to another location, then the way of foundation should be changed, e.g.. apply foundations on piles.
Embankment land is land transported and piled by man. The bearing capacity of sands and gravels may be taken equal to the bearing capacity of native sands and gravels, provided, that they are characterized by the same state of compaction. In the case of embankments, there is a different degree of compaction, in different places, and therefore with different bearing capacities.
Embankments made of cohesive soils should be classified as an unreliable foundation for foundations, due to the difficulties in determining their degree of consolidation. If the mound was made of dry lumps, large pores may be present and rapid and large subsidence may occur when wet.