Construction of a frame wall with a steel structure

Buildings made in the steel frame technology are an alternative to the light wooden skeleton.
Steel as a construction material used to build houses is relatively cheap and easy to obtain compared to wood. It is characterized by constant technological and mechanical properties and the ability to precisely define technical parameters. The high strength of steel allows savings, like for example. when designing large-span ceilings without the need for intermediate supports.
Modern steel frame structures are made of cold-bent structures, thin-walled profiles made of galvanized steel strips. A sheet of thickness is used for production 0,5-2 mm cold rolled.
Hot rolled sections (e.g.. I-sections) they are used less and less in frame structures, mainly due to the high weight and cost
The steel structure is based on similar principles as the structure in timber frame buildings.
The spacing of the poles in the steel skeleton is 60 cm. The posts are made of C steel profiles and fixed at the bottom in a U-profile guide, which is the equivalent of a wooden base. The steel structure is often additionally stiffened with diagonal bars. Horizontal stiffeners protect the columns against buckling and possible loss of stability. From the top, the bracing of the vertical columns is a cap beam made of an inverted U-profile – placed on the poles. The skeleton is stiffened with external sheathing made of plywood or a water-resistant chipboard.
The steel structure is made on foundation walls secured with roofing felt strips, led out above the ground for min. 30 cm. The skeleton of the building can be partially assembled at the factory. Prefabricated construction elements, such as roof girders, ceiling elements and ready-made wall elements, are transported to the construction site and assembled as a whole.
When the skeleton is assembled on site, the columns and beams are first joined into wall elements, then lifted and placed in designated places on the foundation slab.
The skeleton is attached to the foundation with bolts, nails and anchoring tapes. The individual elements of the skeleton are connected with self-drilling screws.
After the walls are set up and bolted together, the outer sheathing of plywood or waterproof chipboards is attached. The sheathing braces all the elements of the structure together.
The next stage of construction is the installation of ceilings and roof girders. The ceilings are made of C beams. In multi-storey buildings, under the supports of the ceiling beams and between the ceiling beams and the sheathing, felt strips should be worn, which allow to minimize the phenomenon of transmission of vibrations.
The roof girders consist of designed profiles and rest on the walls of the building. Their elements are combined like this, like elements of external walls. Long-span girders may have nodes stiffened on both sides with a plate.
On the ceilings and roof, similar to the exterior walls, bracing plywood or water-resistant chipboard sheathing is attached.
Frame houses in steel construction can have up to 3 storeys in height. The selection of appropriate profiles for all building elements requires detailed design calculations.