Foundation footings: a) brick, b) stone, c) height of brick and stone benches made on lime-cement or cement mortars and concrete benches.
The simplest type of shallow foundations are footings and benches. Feet are used to transfer loads from columns. Benches can be used to transfer loads from walls, as well as from the poles, if the poles are close to one another.
The figure shows the types of continuous footings. Brick and stone benches are made of variable width at the top and bottom. Bench widenings are obtained by using offsets of a size 1/4 bricks. The benches can be made with one-sided or two-sided offsets. Asymmetrical benches (with one-sided offsets) are used alongside existing buildings or at the border of a neighbor.
The slope of the benches depends on the type of mortar used; with lime mortar h:s ≥ 4, with lime-cement mortar h : s ≥ 3, and with the cement mortar h:s ≥ 2. Accordingly, the height of the bench changes.
In asymmetrical benches, the one-sided extension s greater than the half of the basement wall is not used, because when widening too much, the extreme part of the footing does not take part in the load transfer to the ground. Under the influence of the moment M = Ne it rotates and the right part of the bench is detached from the ground.
A bench with a one-sided offset (e.g.. next to the neighbor's building).